Computer Language and OOP History
1957 Fortran by John Backus (IBM):
Still favorite language of physicists.
1959 Lisp (LISt Processing) introduced by McCarthy:
First to use recursion, first-class functions, garbage collection.
Intended for AI.
1960 Cobol (Common Business Oriented Language).
1960 Algol (ALGOrithmic Language):
Block structure, data types, BNF notation.
1964 Basic by Kemeny and Kurtz.
Introduced classes, coroutines, instancing (data abstraction).
1971 Pascal from Niklaus Wirth:
Intended as stepping-stone to learn Algo and Fortran.
1972 C from Dennis Ritchie:
Born out of Pascal, B and BCPL.
Built for Unix, fast and low-level.
Logic, rule-based language (predicate calculus),
used in AI.
1975 Scheme by Guy Steele and Gerald Sussman:
1979 Common LISP Object System
1980 (1970 to 1983) Smalltalk by Alan Kay:
Pure OO language (partly based on Simula).
1983 Objective C
1984 Ada commissioned by the U.S. Department of Defence:
For real-time systems, e.g., used for controlers in air-planes.
1986 (1991 release 3.0) C++ started by Bjarne Stroustroup:
Speed of C with OO features, includes
templates and multiple inheritance.
- 1987 Actor, Eiffel by Bertrand Meyer:
Intended to be OO and multi-platform. Based on ideas of C++.
1996 Java by James Gosling (at SUN Micro Systems):
Uses a virtual machine, almost all features of C++.
- 1987 Perl by Larry Wall:
Scripting Language, combines C, awk, sed, sh, and BASIC.
1991 Python by Van Rossum.
1995 PHP (PHP Hypertext Preprocessor) by Rasmus Lerdorf.
1995 Ruby by Yukihiro Matsumoto:
High-level OO scripting languages.
1995 Lingo by John Thompson:
Scripting language for Windows, used by Director.
Written for non-programmers.
2001 (2004 version 2.0) ActionScript by Macromedia:
The Language List of
contains more than 2500 computer languages.
Computer Languages Timeline
gives an overview about the connection
between computer languages
(original from www.levenez.com).